By then, the Soviet Union had concluded friendship and cooperation treaties with several states in the non-communist world, especially between Third World states and the non-aligned movement such as India and Egypt. Despite some ideological obstacles, Moscow has promoted state interests by earning military support points in strategically important areas around the developing world. In addition, the Soviet Union continued to provide military aid to revolutionary movements in the developing world. For all these reasons, the foreign policy of the Soviet Union was of great importance to the non-communist world and helped to define the scope of international relations.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state that spread all over Europe and Asia during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a federal union of several national republics; In practice, the government and the economy were highly centralized until later years. It was the largest country in the world, with an area of over 22,402,200 square kilometers and eleven time zones. In Eastern Europe, within the Soviet Union itself, the peoples concerned were increasingly concerned about freedom. Soviet scientists were equal to everyone in the world, but their country was too poor to pay for both weapons and butter, and their skills were aimed at matching the US military machine, rather than improving people’s well-being. But in 1983, the Soviet chief of staff admitted that “We will never be able to overtake modern weapons until we have an economic revolution. And the question is whether we can have an economic revolution without a political revolution. “.
However, the individual constitutions of the SSR did not grant comparable rights to their autonomous republics and regions. When the Armenian people of Nagorno-Karabakh, an autonomous region that was part of the Azerbaijani SSR, declared their independence, Armenia struck a heavy blow, which the international community suspected provided military logistical support to the self-proclaimed republic. Consequently, sanctions soviet collectibles were imposed on Armenia, which, although not officially recognizing the Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh, refused to condemn its raids on Azerbaijan, leading to the regime’s fall in power. Heydar Aliyev, a former apparatchik and the new leader of Azerbaijan, agreed to negotiate with the separatists, but to no avail. The conflict between Nagorno and Karabakh has become one of many unresolved conflicts in the Caucasus.
The Supreme Soviet, which had an elected president who served as the head of state, oversaw the Council of Ministers, who acted as the executive power of the government. The chairman of the council of ministers, whose selection was approved by the legislature, acted as head of government. A constitutionally established judiciary included a judicial system headed by the Supreme Court, which was responsible for overseeing public authorities’ compliance with Soviet law. Under the Soviet Constitution of 1977, the government had a federal structure, giving the republics some authority over policy implementation and giving national minorities the appearance of participating in the management of their own affairs.
This event is said to be officially known in Soviet bibliographies as the Great October Socialist Revolution. In December, the Bolsheviks signed a truce with the central powers, although the battle resumed in February 1918. In March, the Soviets ended their participation in the war and signed the Brest-Litovsk Treaty. The Soviet economic model was based on centralized planning and differed significantly from that in most developed market economy countries. In the Soviet Union, private property of land and real estate was not allowed, as it was said to be collective of all Soviet citizens, but in fact belonged to the state. The planned economy would avoid competition and subordinate models of “five-year plans”, which set all the industrial production and agricultural objectives in the country for five years in advance.
The new government stated that the country, resources and means of production are all moving towards a collective system for the improvement of workers and peasants, not the aristocratic elite. On December 30, 1922, after the defeat of the remaining monarchal supporters, the process of joining the new communist republics in the USSR began in full swing. Faced with a difficult political and economic situation, Gorbachev approved the constitutional reform of 1 December 1988, which allowed several candidates to be admitted to the next elections. The new Legislative Assembly, elected on March 26, 1989, therefore sought to restore the legitimacy of central power and consolidate the Union.
Some historians have seen this move due to the fact that Gorbachev was the first leader of the Soviet Union to cut his political teeth into a destalinized USSR. Glasnost meant that news broadcasts could expose the shortcomings of the Soviet system and the Communist Party. Perhaps more than anything, their coverage of the horrific accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 illustrated the party’s incompetence and fragmented citizens’ belief not only in its ability to rule effectively, but also to protect them.
The USSR is said to have experienced 2-2.5% economic growth in the 1990s as a result of Soviet energy fields. However, the energy sector had many difficulties, including the country’s high military spending and hostile relations with the First World. In the early 1940s, the Soviet economy had become relatively self-sufficient; for most of the period until Comecon was founded, only a small proportion of domestic products were traded internationally. However, the impact of the global economy on the USSR was limited by fixed domestic prices and a state monopoly on foreign trade. Grain and advanced consumer manufacturers became important import items around the 1960s. During the Cold War arms race, the Soviet economy was burdened by military spending, which was heavily lobbied by a powerful bureaucracy dependent on the arms industry.